U.S. President Donald Trump's recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital sparked Palestinian protests, clashes and a call for a new intifada on Thursday as fears grew of fresh bloodshed in the region.
Trump's announcement also prompted an almost universal diplomatic backlash that continued on Thursday, with fresh warnings from Turkey, the European Union and Russia.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu however lavished praise on Trump, saying his name would now be associated with Jerusalem’s long history and urging other countries to follow his lead.
The Israeli military deployed hundreds more troops to the occupied West Bank amid uncertainty over the fallout, while clashes between Palestinians and Israeli security forces erupted in various areas.
In a speech in Gaza City, Hamas leader Ismail Haniya called for a new intifada, or uprising.
"This Zionist policy supported by the U.S. cannot be confronted unless we ignite a new intifada," Haniya said in a speech.
Protests were held in West Bank cities including Ramallah, Hebron and Nablus, as well as in the Gaza Strip.
Israeli forces dispersed several hundred protesters with tear gas at a checkpoint at the entrance to Ramallah, while the Palestinian Red Crescent reported dozens wounded from tear gas, rubber bullets and live fire in the West Bank.
Three Palestinians were wounded east of the city of Khan Yunis in the Gaza Strip, medical sources and witnesses said.
Trump's defiant move -- making good on a pledge made during his 2016 presidential campaign -- ends seven decades of U.S. ambiguity on the status of the Holy City, which is claimed by both Israelis and Palestinians.
Trump said it marks the start of a "new approach" to solving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
"It is time to officially recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel," he said in a speech from the White House on Wednesday, urging calm and "the voices of tolerance to prevail over the purveyors of hate."
- 'Darker times' -
But his willingness to part with international consensus on such a sensitive issue drew increasingly urgent warnings from around the world.
EU diplomatic chief Federica Mogherini said the decision could take the region "backwards to even darker times."
Russia said it viewed the move with "serious concern" and Saudi Arabia called it "unjustified and irresponsible."
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said it would put the region in a "ring of fire."
"Hey Trump! What do you want to do?" he asked.
"What kind of approach is this? Political leaders do not stir things up, they seek to make peace."
Palestinian leaders were outraged, with President Mahmoud Abbas saying Trump had disqualified the United States from its traditional role as peace broker in the Middle East conflict.
Palestinian shops in east Jerusalem, including the Old City, as well as in the West Bank were largely shuttered and schools closed on Thursday after a general strike was called.
"By this decision, America became a very small country, like any small country in the world, like Micronesia," Salah Zuhikeh, 55, told AFP in Jerusalem's Old City.
"America was a great country for us and everyone."
Trump's move left many angry U.S. allies struggling to find a diplomatic response.
Through gritted teeth, Britain described the move as "unhelpful" and France called it "regrettable." Germany said plainly that it "does not support" Trump's decision.
Eight countries including Britain, France and Italy pressed for an emergency meeting of the U.N. Security Council in response, which was set for Friday.
- Right-wing politics -
Trump also kicked off the process of moving the U.S. embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
In doing so, he begins to make good on a campaign promise dear to U.S. evangelical Christian and right-wing Jewish voters -- as well as donors.
Trump's predecessors, from Bill Clinton to George Bush, had made the same promise, but quickly reneged upon taking office.
The 45th U.S. president was determined to show his arrival in Washington spells the end of business as usual, suggesting his predecessors failed to act though lack of "courage."
Israel seized Arab east Jerusalem in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed it in a move never recognized by the international community.
The Palestinians want the eastern sector as the capital of their future state.
Several peace plans have unraveled in the past decades over the issue of how to divide sovereignty or oversee holy sites in Jerusalem.
The international community does not recognise the ancient city as Israel's capital, insisting the issue can only be resolved in negotiations -- a point reiterated by U.N. chief Antonio Guterres in the wake of Trump's decision.
Guterres implicitly criticized Trump, stressing his opposition to "any unilateral measures that would jeopardize the prospect of peace."
Trump insisted the move did not prejudge final talks, saying it simply reflected the reality that west Jerusalem is and will continue to be part of Israel under any settlement.
"Peace is never beyond the grasp of those willing to reach it," said the U.S. leader, who declared that "this decision is not intended in any way to reflect a departure from our strong commitment to facilitate a lasting peace."
"The United States would support a two-state solution if agreed to by both sides," Trump said, as he announced that Vice President Mike Pence would travel to the region in the coming days.
Trump further stated that the United States was not taking a position on any "final status issues, including the specific boundaries of the Israeli sovereignty in Jerusalem, or the resolution of contested borders.
"Those questions are up to the parties involved," he said.
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